The process of which learned motor patterns are changed or modified to a certain environment. 

Adaptive Behaviour

The internal or external process of copying with changes in an environment.

Adaptive Mechanism

Learned behaviours and responses, which assist in coping with different environments.

Adductor Tendonitis

Localised pain over the tendons of the adductors. It commonly occurs in athletes (current attention is turned to footballers more so) and horse riders.

Adipose Tissue

Specialized connective tissue that functions as a major storage for fat (fat stored in the form of triglycerides). There are two types, white and brown.


The activated or contracting muscle opposed by the antagonist.


The digestive tract stemming from the mouth to the anus.

Anabolic Steroid

In Australia classed as an illegal performance enhancing drug. It is derived from the male sex hormone, testosterone. Used mainly to increase strength, power, hypertrophy. Can be administered orally or through injection.


Chemical reaction where simple or small molecules are built into more larger complex ones.


Pain relief through medication modalities whether it be conventional medication (paracetamol), more physical like ultrasound or alternate practices such as acupuncture.


Dilation or eruption of a blood vessel

Annulus Fibrosis

This consists of the outer or peripheral portion of the invertebrael disc. It consist of collagen fibers arranged in a complex pattern. The posterior part of the disc is weakest due to the thinner fibers of the collagen lamellae.

Anorexia Nervosa

A mental illness which is characterised by a refusal to eat, uncontrolled and rapid weight loss. This may continue until the individual is grossly thin, and in mind set they still believe they are fat.

Anoxemia (Hypoxemia)

Oxygen levels in the body tissue are below normal physiological levels.


The muscle that opposes the function of another muscle.

Anthropometric Measurements

Measurements of the body encompassing body size (girth measurements) and body composition (skin folds, height & weight).

Aortic Reflex

A negative feedback system involving barorecpetors. It helps govern general systemic blood pressure.


This is a sheet or flat ribbon-like structure associated with tendinous attachments of muscle. It is comprised of dense collagen fibers.


Arginine stimulates the pituitary to secrete Human Growth Hormone (hGH). It is also involved in the metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen transport. Has also been found to improve immune system responses to bacteria. Also assist in regeneration of the liver. Found in meats, dairy – highest inchocolate grains and nuts.

Articular Capsule

The articular capsule is a thin loose sac that completely encircles a joint. The weakest part of this sac is the inferior region. The capsule aids in joint stability especially at end ranges of motion.


A respiratory disorder which is induced by the inflammation of the bronchi, causing wheezing and breathing difficulties.

Athletic significance of

Minerals are needed for normal metabolism, growth, & maintenance of the body. Adequate mineral intake is essential for performance and health. Most athletes’ diets are deficient in one or several minerals. Optimum mineral intake is best attained from a combination of food and supplements.


Decrease in size or wasting away of muscle due to a catabolic state.



Ballistic Stretching

A method of stretching where the individual uses an explosive action to force to the end of a range of motion in that body segment. This type of stretching can often cause muscle soreness and sometimes tearing if not correctly warmed up or controlled.
Furthermore, sudden stretching activates the stretch reflex in the muscle, causing the muscle to contract to prevent over-stretching.



Receptors that monitor the changes in pressure and stretch in the walls of blood vessels.        

Basal Metabolic Rate

The rate of energy required by the body to maintain basic, yet essential bodily functions.


If an exercise is bilateral it means it is affecting both sides as opposed to unilateral.


A secretion by the liver. It consists of substances such as bile products (salts & pigments), cholesterol, lecithin and other ions and water. It acts to emulsify lipids prior to their digestion in the stomach.


The use of instrumentation, or hands to bring about a level of conscious awareness to an individual. This information is then conveyed usually through visual or verbal signals.

Biological Value (BV)

Is a scale of measurement used to determine what percentage of a given nutrient source is utilized by the body. The scale is most frequently applied to protein sources, particularly whey protein. It is derived from providing a measure intake of protein, then determining the nitrogen uptake versus nitrogen excretion.

Blood Doping

Common practice in sports such as rowing, cycling and horse racing, it involves withdrawing blood from the athlete or animal followed by re-infusion of usually 4-8 weeks. During this time the level of erythrocytes (red blood cells) return to it state prior to withdrawal. The addition of the extra blood volume increases the performance of the athlete / animal through a greater oxygen carrying capacity – hence improved endurance or aerobic capacity. This is banned not only because it is considered illegal performance enhancing, but it is extremely dangerous.

Body Mass Index

Indication scale of weight to height ratio.


A slow resting heart rate (RHR) or slow pulse rate.


Respirations of an abnormally slow nature. (less than 10 respirations per minute).

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’s)

BCAA’s are Branched Chain Amino Acids consisting 3 essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. They are considered essential amino acids because human beings cannot survive unless these amino acids are present in the diet.
They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Together they comprise approx. 1/3 of human muscle tissue.


A substance which dilates the bronchi of the lungs.

Brown Adipose Tissue

Specialised connective tissue is found in various location throughout the body (depending on the animal). Brown Adipose Tissue is important in regulating body temperature (it is less metabolically active then White Adipose Tissue). It is used in regulating the body’s temperature through heat production ornon-shivering thermogenesis.



Acts as a acid neutralizer, changing a strong acid into a weaker acid.


A sac filled with fluid. They are usually located around areas of friction such as between bones and tendons.


Inflammation of the bursa. Common cause is chronic overuse or direct trauma.


Cardiac Output 

Amount of blood forced out of the heart with each left ventricular contraction.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel (distal wrist/hand). It results in sensory changes over the lateral side of the hand, motor disturbances and muscle weakness.
Carotid Sinus Reflex This is a negative feedback system that involves barorecpetors. It assists in maintaining a normal state of blood pressure in the brain.
Catabolism                          A chemical state of reactions that breakdown complex organic compounds into more simple ones. This causes a net release of energy.
Chemical Thermogenesis Increased thyroxine output. Stimulates heat production and hence increases cellular metabolism.
Chemoreceptors This is a sensory receptor that detects chemicals. These chemicals may be in the mouth (taste), nose (smell) or in the bodily fluids.
Chitosan Other name for Chitosan is marine fiber. It is a fiber product made from the shell of oysters and crustaceans. It has gained recognition amongst Body Builders and nutritionists as a dietary supplement because of its ability to soak up fat, grease and other toxins.
Cholesterol A lipid which poses many physical and chemical properties of other lipids, however does not contain fatty acids.
Cholestyramine Is a cholesterol reducing drug (Brand Name: Questran). Known as a medicine that binds with bile acids from which cholesterol is made and removes them from the body.
Chondroitin Sulfate A complex carbohydrate produced naturally in the body. Used as a supplement to assist heart problems, bone and joint conditions such as arthritis. It is an effective blood thinner and cell rejuvenator.
Chronic Illness 
An illness which generally lasts longer than 6 months.

Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises (CKCE)

Exercises performed when the hand or foot is fixed or remains in contact with the ground i.e. Squat or push-up. These are considered weight bearing.

Creatinine                               Is product breakdown of Creatine and can be used to measure Kidney function – the higher the levels of Creatinine the less efficient the kidneys are operating.
Coccydynia Pain around the coccyx or coccygeal joint. May be due to referred pain from the lumbar region or direct trauma to the coccyx.
Colle’s Fracture Resultant from falling from an outstretched hand, it is a fracture to the distal part of the radius.
Colostrum This is a thin cloudy fluid secreted by the mammary glands a few days prior or post delivery. This occurs before true milk is delivered. Contains less lactose than milk and virtually no fat. Its benefits along with maternal milk are in its prevalence of antibodies.

Complete protein

Complete proteins are proteins that contain the essential amino acids in amounts that are sufficient for maintenance of normal growth rate and body weight.

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbs are hundreds or thousands of sugar units linked together in single molecules. Complex carbs, such as potatoes, are pleasant to the taste buds, but not sweet.

Contra-lateral Meaning on the opposite side.
A steroid hormone (produced by the adrenal cortex), which has anti-inflammatory properties. Commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Cortisone is also active in the conversion of protein to carbohydrates and assist in the regulation salt metabolism of the body.

A rupture in a living cell which results in its contents oozing out.




Insufficient fluid in the body, causing muscular fatigue, distorted visual reactions, head aches, and nausea, to name a few.


A category of carbohydrates that contains two-sugar molecule.


People often overload and move the shoulder beyond its functional range of motion (ROM). Shoulder dislocations (subluxation) are the most common complex joint dislocations in the body. They commonly occur on the sporting field when the client falls on an outstretched arm or a severe blow to the humerus during a tackle in football. This is where the head of the humerus disassociates from the glenoid fossa. Dislocations can occur in three different ways, toward the back of the shoulder (a posterior dislocation), or below the shoulder (an inferior dislocation) and the most common shoulder dislocations are of the anterior type.


The removal of the nucleus pulposus (or remnants thereof), from a herniated disc.


An increase in urination, with out an increase in fluid intake (Polyuria)


A chemical that increasing urine secretion by inhibiting reabsorption of water. It also inhibits sodium reabsorption and reduces the presence of Antidiuretic Hormone Concentration (ADH).

Dorsal Recumbent Position

Lying on the back with head and shoulders slightly elevated.

Dura Mater

Thickest and most superficial covering of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.


A mechanical device which is used to measure characteristics such as concentric, isometric and eccentric strength.

Dynamic Equilibrium

The body’s abilities to maintain a balance during a stages of continual physical change.

Dynamic Stretching

Dynamic stretching is similar to ballistic stretching but doesn’t involve bouncing and includes movements similar to exercise or sport movement patterns. An example of dynamic stretching would be high knee lifts to stretch the hamstrings. This type of stretching is more specific to the performance undertaken in sport and is more likely to prevent muscle injury than static stretching which has been shown to possibly reduce power output.


Pain associated with menstruation.


Shortness of breath.

Dysrhythmia (arrhythmia)  

Irregular pulse rhythm.



The lengthening of the muscle during its contraction phase


A fancy term for a bruise


Excess fluid in the interstitial fluid.


The inner layer of the heart.


Originating (or developing) within the organism itself.


The connective tissue or sheath surrounding each individual muscle fiber.


These are polypeptides able to bind with neuro-receptors in the brain. The result is a morphine or pain-killer like response. They are the hormones responsible for the runner’s high experienced after exercise.


Involuntary urination.


A protein capable of accelerating chemical reactions or producing (through catalytic action) some change in a chemical substance.


The external layer of the heart.


The upper middle section of the abdomen (located within the sternal angle).


The segment of bone separated from the long bone by a piece of cartilage (early during growth). Later it becomes part of the larger bone.


Red blood Cells (RBC), they are shaped like a bi-concave disc.


Production of Red Blood Cells.

Essential Amino Acids

These amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from other sources of nutrients in our diet. They consist of; lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine.
Essential Fatty Acids – Cannot be synthesized by the body. They are unsaturated fatty acids with two and three double bonds. Linoleic (2 bonds) and linolenic (3 bonds).


The study of the cause of injury or disease.


Turning the sole of the foot outward – weight is taken on the inside of the foot.


Discharge of (waste) products from the body.

Expiratory Reserve Volume

During normal exhalation, the maximum amount of air exhaled.


Escape of fluid such as blood, lymph or serum into tissue spaces from a vessel.


outside or external.




In reference to muscle facilitation, it is a response or activation at synapse due to stimulation. 


A band or sheet of fibrous tissue under the skin encapsulating the body’s muscles and organs.


A small functional bundle of muscle or nerve fibers.

Fencing Reflex

Also called tonic neck reflex is produced by turning a bay’s head to one side while they lie on their back.  This produces extension on one side (the direction in which the baby has turned their head) and flexion on the other – mimicking a fencers pose, hence the name.

Femoral Pulse

This is the pulse of the femoral artery and can be felt on the groin at a point mid-way between the symphysis pubis, in the mid-line, and the anterior iliac spine.


Fibers are another type of polysaccharide. They cannot be digested in the human gut and technically do not provide energy as such. It is found together with simple and complex carbohydrates in various plant foods.


A spontaneous contraction of an individual muscle fiber/s which are no longer under the control of a motor neuron (spasmodic contraction). This term is commonly applied to the heart.


A whitish soluble protein important in blood clotting.


A soluble protein in blood plasma which is converted to fibrin (through the action of thrombin). This in-turn causes a blood clot.


A cleft or groove

Fluid Retention

Is a buid up of fluid in certain areas or tissues of the body. It is often referred to as an oedema (swelling). There are (2) broad categories of Fluid Retention that include:

1. generalised oedema (swelling occurring throughout the body), and
2. localised oedema (particular parts of the body are affected).


A hole mainly into or through a bone.


A pit or depression in a bone.

Functional Capacity

The capability of which an individual is able to take part in day to day life.

Functional Residue Capacity

During normal expiration, the amount of air remaining in the lungs.



Pattern of walking


Sex cells

Gamma Efferents

These are neurons which control the sensitivity of the muscle spindle.


The biological unit of heredity. They are self-producing and located on a chromosome.


The period of pregnancy.


An organ in the body that produces and secretes a specific product.


Word pertaining to the tongue.


This is a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas in response to stimulation by the growth hormone or during a period of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels).


The breakdown and synthesis of amino acids, lipids and lactic acid (as a fuel substrate) into glucose. This process mainly occurs in the cells of the liver and kidney.


Principal blood sugar or blood sugar glucose. It is a monosaccharide (i.e. dextrose).


A hormone which assists the metabolism of glucose, fat and protein.

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index (or commonly referred to as The G.I. Factor) is the blood glucose response for 2 hours after the food is ingested in comparison to the 2 hour response to ingestion in an equivalent amount of glucose.


Glycogen is a very large, highly branched polysaccharide composed of multiple glucose units. It is a stored form of glucose and is similar to starch found in plants, however it has a different structure.


Process of the formation of glycogen.


Breakdown of glucose, hence forming ATP


Glucose present in the urine.


Is one of the few amino acids that assist in sparing glucose for energy by improving glycogen storage. It also helps trigger the release of oxygen essential for aerobic metabolism. It is important in brain metabolism (has a calming effect).


Sex organs such as the ovaries (female) or testes (male).

Graves Disease

Hyperthyroidism, where the thyroid is over active.


Haemoglobin (Hemoglobin)  

Iron containing protein attached to red blood cells which assist in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.


A disorder where the blood does not clot properly.


A bulge or protrusion of an organ of tissue through an abnormal opening.

Herniated Disc

A condition where all of, or part of the nucleus pulposus is forced through a weaker part of the disc (usually posterior) and causes impingement on the nerves and spinal cord.


Part of anatomy that dealing with the minute structure, composition, function and position of the tissues.


Stability in an organism.


Similarity of structure.


Corresponding in structure, position and origin.


A substance predominantly produce in the endocrine glands of the body. It can be transported in the blood to another part of the body where it exerts a regulatory action.


Refers to a number of things ranging from the process of consuming water and electrolytes to maintain correct water ratio in one’s body.


Liquid in a state of equilibrium.


Can be defined overactive or over responsive reflexes i.e. twitching.


Increased in blood to a area of the body.


An abnormally low concentration of blood glucose.


Pertaining to a muscle that is short, tight and overactive.


An increase in muscle size due to an increase in the size of individual muscle fibers.


Beneath the skin.


An excessive growth of bone.


An abnormal increase in depth and rate of respiration.


An increase in muscle size due to an increase in the number of muscle fibres.



The inability for a person to retain urine, semen or faeces due to lack of sphincter or pelvic muscle control.


Stands for Insulin Growth Factor-1. It is a compound produced primarily in the liver through a conversion of HGH (Human Growth Hormone). HGH is secreted by the pituitary gland and is essential for growth and optimum immune system function.


These are small proteins which account for cellular growth and repair.

Incomplete Protein

A protein food source like fruit, vegetable and grains, which are generally lacking one or more of the essential amino acids.


Below a certain structure.


Increasing in size or mass of certain bodily area’s. Can result from an external and internal stimuli.


Pertaining to the groin.


The drawing of air into the lungs.


A substance (belongs to a chemical family called purine nucleotides) that increases the body's natural ability to handle strenuous exercise, workouts, intense training programs, and competitive events – penetrates the cell walls of cardiac and skeletal muscles helping to boost production of ATP.

Insensible Perspiration

Given to the situation where perspiration occurs through artificial means (sauna), external influences (intense environmental heat) and situation stress.


The attachment of a muscle that is the distal and most movable part of the muscle.

Inspiratory Capacity

The maximal volume that can be inspired from resting expiratory level.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Is amount of air that can be forcibly inspired at the end of normal inspiration.

In Situ  

In it’s normal environment.


Within the joint.


Within neural tissue.


Usually pertaining to exercise and how hard you are performing it.


Situated between the cells of any structure.


Meaning it’s situated between the ribs.


These are sensory receptors located in blood vessels, Nervous System & visceral organs. They actively provide information about the body’s internal environment.

Internal Respiration

The inhaling of oxygen and its absorption into the blood cells – it encompasses cellular metabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and aerobic oxidation in the mitochondria.

Interstitial Fluid(ICF)

The fluid within cells.


Meaning within the blood vessels or lymphatics.


Turning the sole of the foot inwards – weight is taken on the outside of the foot.

In Vitro

Literally meaning in glass or outside the living body. Experiments or research are often quoted to be conducted in vitro or in vivo.

In Vivo

Implies in the living body. Experiments or research are often quoted to be conducted in vivo or in vitro.


Degenerative change.


An atom or group of atoms having a charge of either positive or negative.


Meaning same side.

Iron Deficiency Anemia

(Also called IDA) is a condition where a person has inadequate amounts of iron to meet body demands. It is a decrease in the amount of red cells in the blood caused by having too little iron. IDA can be caused by blood loss or a diet insufficient in iron.


Temporary deficiency of blood due to a contraction of a blood vessel.


Constant loading of a muscle, with variable velocity.


Applies to muscle contraction in which a constant joint angular velocity is maintained by accommodating resistance.


Muscle contraction without any movement at the joint/s.


The constricted (neck) part of an organ.


Joint Capsule 

Also referred to as articular capsules is a sac like structure that encloses the cavity of synovial joints. It is attached to bones just outside the cartilage. Each capsule consists of two layers — an outer layer (membrana fibrosa capsulae articularis) composed of white fibrous tissue, and an inner layer which is a secreting layer (membrana synovialis capsulae articularis). It assists in stability of a joint and integrity of synovial fluid in surrounding areas.



Commonly confused with Ketosis (see Ketosis in glossary). It is a Metabolic condition where the body has dangerous levels of keytones (acids) derived from excess of fat and protein breakdown when glucose can’t be produced as an energy source. Very common amongst untreated type 1 diabetes. It is usually accompanied by dehydration and hypoglycemia.


Process where the liver turns fat into fatty acids and keytones which are in-turn used for energy.

Kreb's Cycle (Citruc Acid Cycle)

It is a series of chemical reactions that use oxygen to produce nergy. This cycle also provides precursors for many compounds such as certain amino acids.


Curvature of the spine (thoracic region) which looks similar to a “Hunchback”. Caused by posture & environment and can result in osteoporosis, arthritis and Spondylolisthesis, lower back pain, depressed sternum, shoulder impingement due to decreased ROM at shoulder and more. Also referred to Scheuermann’s disease, this is the common name used when wedging of the vertebrae develops in adolescents.


Lactic Acid

A toxin or waste product produced by the skeletal muscle during intense activity dominated by the lactic energy system. It inhibits the role of the enzymes responsible for muscle contraction.


White Blood Cells (WBC).

Lipotropic Agent

An action that prevents excess fat and toxic build up in the liver and body.


Non-elastic structures that connect bone to bone.



Macro meaning large, hence large nutrient particle.


The act of chewing.


They detect what we call mechanical pressure such as touch and vibration. They are also able to monitor stretching or blood vessels and internal organs.


The least abundant amino acid contained in food. It acts as a lipotropic agent (refer to glossary of key terms) by reducing liver fat and protects the kidneys. Excellent anti oxidant due to it’s sulfur component. High in dairy foods, meats and fish (richest).


Minerals that occur in tiny amounts or traces. They play a major role in health, since even minute portions of them can powerfully affect health. They are essential in the assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients. They can aid in digestion, provide the catalyst for many hormones, enzymes and essential body functions and reactions and also aid in replacing electrolytes lost through intense exercise and heavy perspiration.


Micro meaning small, hence small nutrient particle.


A category of carbohydrates that contains only one-sugar molecule.

Muscle Spindle

Proprioceptors within muscle cells that detect muscle length and changes in this length, transferring this feedback to the CNS (Central Nervous System).


Consisting of muscle and ligaments.


A combination of muscle, bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and fasciae.


Consisting of muscle and tendon.


An immature bone marrow cell found in blood of pathological substances.


A round swelling formed through a defect or protrusion of the spinal cord.


A tumor of the bone marrow.


A neurological deficit resulting from spinal cord disease or injury.



Another term used for a tumor or abnormal growth that is usually progressive or uncontrolled.

Net protein Utilisation               

It is another method of determining protein quality. It compares the content of individual essential amino acids in food protein to with a reference pattern.


Of nerve origin. 


These are non-conducting support cells of the nervous system. They include the atrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependyma, and the satellite cells of the Peripheral Nervous System, and the microglia of the Central Nervous System (CNS).

Nitrogen Balance

The balance between the amount of nitrogen taken into the body and the amount lost or excreted.


Act as receptors to pain. They respond to a stimuli as a result of damage (physical or chemical) to tissue. 

Non-Shivering Thermogenesis  

The creation of heat without muscle shivering.

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

These are medications that produce an antipyretic, analgesic (pain relieving) and when used over a period of time, has an anti-inflammatory effects. A well known-NSAIDS is paracetamol and aspirin.

Nucleus Pulposus

The semi-gelatinous substance contained within the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebrael disc. It assists in the transfer of force.


One Rep Max

Used as a strength test it is the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in one (1) repetition.


Soft tissue swelling, which can be intra- or extra-articular.

Open Kinetic Chain Exercise(OKCE)

These are exercises where the foot or hand is free to move while overcoming a resistance i.e. leg extension. They are considered non-weight bearing. Open skill.

Osteitis pubis

Inflammatory reaction in the pubic symphysis, usually classified as a chronic or overuse injury. Often pain is felt bilaterally, in the groin region, thigh lower abdomen and around the perineal structures. Very common amongst multi-directional sport such as football, AFL, soccer and also endurance athletes such as triathletes and marathon runners.


A degenerative disease characterised by a breakdown or loss of cartilage with a variety of signs and symptoms, including osteophyte formation, stiffness, deformity (e.g. Heberben's nodes) and pain.

Osteochondritis dissecans

A fragment of cartilage and subchondral bone that becomes detached, (partially or completely) from the bone underneath. 


Commonly referred to as a bone spur. It is an outgrowth or projection of bone, usually in reaction to pathological processes or diseases within, or at, a joint. They commonly occur on the feet and as we age on the spine.


A condition that decreases bone density so that it becomes porous like a sponge. It can lead to fractures, particularly crush fractures of the spine and neck of femur fractures. 



To examine through a sense of touch (using hands or fingers), to feel for movement, pathology or activation. Can also be used to activate a muscle or help relax a muscle through myofascial trigger point therapy.

Pars Interarticularis

Part of the vertebrae that connects the facet articular surface to the neural arch. It is the site of fracture in Spondylolysis.

Passive Warm up

Involves techniques such as hot showers, heat pads or massage. These techniques don't lead to any pre fatigue which you may get from other warm up techniques. The effectiveness of this technique is highly deliberated.

Patellar tendinitis

Inflammatory condition of the patellar ligament, usually due to overuse. 


Disease producing organism.


The development and production of a disease.


The study of the source or origin of disease.


Mechanics associated with pathology.


Short chains of amino acids.

Perceived Exertion

The level of intensity or how hard you think you are working during exercise. Usually rated on a scale of 1-10.


The fascial sheath binds groups of muscles into individual bundles.


Synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate molecule.

Planes of Motion

The body is capable of moving through reference points or what we call planes.
1. Frontal Plane
2. Sagittal Plane
3. Transverse Plane
At any one time the body can work through one plane or multiple planes.


This refers to a type of training performed designed to prevent injury as opposed to rehabilitation that deals with exercise after one is injured.


Referring to a body part that is closet to the trunk of the body



The direction of the quadriceps force. It is measured by a line drawn from the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS), through the centre of the patella and intersecting a line to the tibial (tubercle). The average angle is 15.8° +/- 4.5° for females and 11.2° +/- 3.0° for males. 


Reciprocal inhibition

Activation of the motor units of the agonists, causing a reciprocal neural inhibition of the motor units of the antagonists, which allows them to subsequently lengthen under less tension. Also referred to as reciprocal innervation.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD)


RSD is a chronic, painful, and progressive neurological condition that can affect the skin, muscles, joints, and bones. It is usually developed through an injury to a limb such as a broken arm (or post surgery) and caused by an abnormal sympathetic reflex, giving rise to a response that is out of proportion to, and inconsistent with, the injury.
There are 2 (two) types of RSD that have been defined:

    • Type 1 - without nerve injury
    • Type 2 (formerly called causalgia) - with nerve injury.

Posterior slippage of one vertebra on another.


Non-continuance of the stimulus will result in the organism returning to pre-training levels.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Inflammatory (auto-immune) disease affecting the synovial joints. Commonly seen in the hands of patients but also occurs commonly in the cervical spine region. Many deformities can be characteristically seen in people with Rheumatoid arthritis.


Is often due to a traumatic physical injury and involves a rapid breakdown of muscle fibres resulting in the release of muscle fiber contents such as enzymes and cell by-products into the bloodstream.

Risk / Benefit Ratio

Every exercise can be considered in terms of the benefits derived from the particular exercise compared to the risks involved in the correct execution of the movement. While every type of exercise has a certain level of risk, particularly in resistance training programs where external loads or forces act upon the body, they also can be assessed for the benefit to the client in performing the movement. Since the health and safety of the client is of paramount importance every exercise must be prescribed with this in mind.

Rotator Cuff

This is a group of muscles that function as an integral part of the shoulder. They comprise of, the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor. The rotator cuff acts to stabilize, strengthen and depress the humeral head (during overhead movements).


Shoulder  Tendonitis

Shoulder tendonitis is considered to be an inflammation of the biceps tendon and / or rotator cuff muscles. It is usually evident because of impingement of surrounding structures on the tendon through pattern overload.


Adaptation produced will be specific to the nature of the stimulus.


Due to a fracture at the pars interarticularis there is a anterior shear displacement of a superior vertebrae. This usually occurs at L4 or L5.


Stabilization is important throughout the entire body. Ranging from the core to core muscles of our body such as the Transverse abdominus (TVA) to muscles that assist in stabilizing other joints such as the shoulder. To stabilise a joint means to hold in its correct position and allow it to perform it functional role without undue stress or incorrect movement patterns in particular areas causing an intrinsic dysfunction leading to pain and injury. The inability to stabilise the scapula is a common cause of problems surrounding the shoulder. Stabilise the shoulder in general assists in maintaining correct alignment or ideal posture and assists in efficient execution of movement.  


Muscles that surround the joint or body part and contract to fixate or stabilize the area to enable another limb or body segment to exert force and move; known as fixators, they are essential in establishing a relatively firm base for the more distal joints to work from when carrying out movements.

Static Stretching

Slow movement places the muscles on stretch, then held for 5 to 60 seconds at the end of the range. There is no bouncing or jerking action in the movement.


Starch is the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants. It is composed of long chains of glucose molecules in a straight (amylose) or branching (amylopectin) arrangement.

Stretch Reflex

This is a protective mechanism for the muscle. When stretching a muscle proprioceptors called muscle spindles have a big influence over the stretch taking place. Muscle spindles lie parallel to the fibres and record the change in length of a muscle fibre. This information is sent to the CNS which triggers the stretch reflex. The stretch reflex tries to resist the change in muscle length by causing the stretched muscle to contract. This is a protective mechanism designed to protect the body from injury.
The stretch reflex consists of 2 components
    1) Dynamic component
        The dynamic component of the stretch reflex is momentary and is response to the initial
        changing of muscle length.
    2) Static component
        The static component continues as the muscle is held in a stretched position.


Is an injury associated with ligaments caused by excessive or sudden overstretching. The ligament can be stretched, slightly torn or completely ruptured. Strains are graded similar to strains in degrees 1 to 3, 1 being the least severe.     


Associated with muscles and can apply to the muscle itself or attaching tendon. Muscle damage can be in the form of partial tears or full tears. A muscle strain can also damage small blood vessels, causing local bleeding (bruising) and pain (caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the area). 


This can be used to describe movement of the hand and foot. At the hand it describes the movement - rotation of the palm upwards and outwards. Rotation of the foot which directs the sole inwards or towards the other foot.


Muscles that assist in the action of the agonists but are not primarily responsible for the action; known as guiding muscles, they assist in refined movement and rule out undesired motions.



An increased or rapid resting heart rate or pulse.

Thermogenesis      The creation of heat.

These are sensory receptors that detect changes in tempertaure.

Target Heart Rate

Prescribed heart rate figure for a training session designed to achieve a physiological outcome.          


A band of connective tissue (predominantly collagen, type I) that connects muscle to bone.
Trace minerals

Minerals occur in tiny amounts or traces. They play a major role in health, since even minute portions / amounts of them can powerfully affect your health. They are essential in the assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients. They can aid in digestion, provide the catalyst for many hormones, enzymes and essential body functions and reactions and also aid in replacing electrolytes lost through intense exercise and heavy perspiration.



Affecting one side. 

Upper Cross Syndrome

Similar to the muscle imbalance called kyphosis where there is a muscle imbalance of the upper body. Consists of tight anterior muscles such as the pectorals, anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, and posterior the muscle – latissimus dorsi. Weak posterior muscles include scapula-thoracic muscles such as lower trapezius and rhomboids to name a few.


Valsalva Maneuver

This technique is commonly employed during strength training (among weight lifters specifically)and involves forceful exhalation while holding the mouth and nose closed designed to increase thoracic pressure. This maneuver can have dangerous implications. From a clinical standpoint it is used to test autonomic reflex control of cardiovascular function. 

Venous Pooling

This is the retention of blood in the venous system and can lead to dizziness and fainting. It occurs due to lack of sympathetic activity and loss of active muscle function in the lower extremities and trunk musculature.

Venous Return

The flow of blood back to the heart from the venous system.

Venous System

Is the system of vein responsible for blood flow back to the heart.
There are three divisions of the veins in the lower limbs
1. Superficial - veins that run close to the surface,
2. Deep - run within deep compartments and muscles,
3. Communicating (also called perforating) Veins - connect the superficial to the deep veins


Refers to a fluids (i.e. blood) resistance to flow under force. Greater viscosity refers to a greater resistance to flow.


These are the individual bones that comprise the sections of the spinal column.


Correctly labeled the Vastus Medialis Obliquis. It is a division on the quadriceps muscle. Situated anterior and medial to the knee.


This refers to the total amount of work completed in a session or designated time frame and can be expressed in many ways such as km run in a session or week or evenly simply reps, sets and load (kg) lifted. 



A measurement used to describe power output.

White Adipose Tissue  

Specialised connective tissue that serves 3 primary functions. It acts as a heat insulator, mechanical cushion and a source of energy for the body mechanisms.


There are no "X" listed.



 Freedom of the self from its temporary state through methods such as exercise and relaxation.


Zygomatic Bone       

More commonly known as the upper cheek bone.